Mon - Fri: 9:00 AM - 5:00 PM

Eye Conditions

Below is a list of common eye conditions. If you have any concerns or questions, please contact our team.

Age Related Macular Degeneration

Age related Macular disease is a common condition affecting people within their 50s and 60s. Fortunately it is not a disease which can cause total blindness, but those who do experience it will notice everyday activities such as reading, writing, and recognising faces may become difficult.


In terms of treatment, it is best to seek advice and guidance from an optometrist, who will be able to pick up on the early signs of AMD by testing your eyes. It will depend how quickly the effects worsen based upon whether you are experiencing “wet AMD” or “dry AMD”. With “wet AMD” your symptoms will develop over a few weeks or months, whereas “dry AMD” will develop over several years. It has not been determined what causes age related macular disease, but in the past it has been associated with smoking, high blood pressure, being overweight and also any family history of it.

What are the symptoms of AMD?

As well as making daily activities like reading, writing, and driving difficult, you may notice other symptoms such as:

  • Seeing straight lines as wavy or crooked
  • Objects looking smaller than normal
  • Colours seeming less bright than they used to
  • Seeing things that aren’t there (hallucinations)
  • It is important to note AMD is not painful and doesn’t affect the appearance of your eyes.


Glaucoma is an eye disease in which the optic nerve is damaged by the pressure of the fluid inside the eye. This may affect one or both eyes, and is often not noticed in everyday life as the damage can happen slowly, and the person may not realise they have glaucoma until the damage is done. This is why regular eye examinations should be carried out for everyone over 40 years. Untreated glaucoma can lead to blindness. Once detected, treatment with eye drops may stop it getting worse.


The best way of screening and checking for glaucoma is with OCT scanning, which allows a detailed assessment of the optic nerve fibre. If a patient is suspected of having glaucoma they may be referred for further tests at the hospital.

Diabetes and the Eye

If you have diabetes, it is recommended you have regular eye tests with an Optometrist to ensure you are not experiencing any diabetes related eye conditions. Having high blood sugar can lead to eye conditions such as Diabetic Retinopathy, which affects the retina and can cause blindness if undetected or undiagnosed. Managing your blood sugar levels and attending annual eye health screenings will minimise the risks of you contracting any eye health conditions.

Our OCT scans, at Marshall & Lilley, will detect any signs of diabetes related eye conditions. We would recommend an OCT scan to anyone with diabetes coming into the practice for an eye test.

Why does Diabetes affect the eyes?

The retina receives light and converts it into electrical signals which are then sent to the brain, resulting in the images you see around you. To work effectively the retina requires a constant supply of blood from the blood vessels in your eyes. Gradually high blood sugar levels could damage these blood vessels, causing several issues in your eyes.


If you are diabetic, it will not be uncommon for you to experience blurry vision, particularly when your blood sugar levels become high, initially this may not be a concern, but if you start to notice this more frequently, we recommend that you speak to an Optometrist.


Cataracts are formed when the clear lens on the eye goes cloudy. The only proven treatment for cataract is surgery. The main cause for the formation of cataracts is age, and usually development occurs in both eyes, although one may be affected before the other. Smoking and exposure to sunlight has also been linked to cataract formation.

When a cataract develops it may cause the vision to be less clear and distinct. When the sun is low in the sky or headlights are coming toward you, this may cause dazzle and glare.

When the cataract gets to the stage where it is affecting the vision your optometrist will offer a referral to the hospital for assessment.

Dry Eye

When the eye doesn’t produce enough tears, it may cause dry eye symptoms. These symptoms may include the eye watering, a gritty sensation or feeling that there is something in the eye.

Dry eye is common with age, and may associate with inflamed eye lids. Advice to help alleviate symptoms can be given during an eye exam and in severe cases a patient may be referred for hospital assessment.

Other Symptoms

If you experience any eye symptoms that you are unsure of please seek medical advice by either attending for a consultation with one of our optometrists, or out of hours calling 111.